Stephenson George: Biography, Basa, Hupenyu Hwehupenyu

Stephenson George: Biography, Basa, Hupenyu Hwehupenyu
Stephenson George: Biography, Basa, Hupenyu Hwehupenyu

Video: Stephenson George: Biography, Basa, Hupenyu Hwehupenyu

Video: David Harper Artwork: History of George Stephenson u0026 Locomotion No:1 (1825) 2022, Gunyana
Anonim

Iyo Biography yaGeorge Stephenson, anonzi "baba vezvitima", izere nezviitiko zvakasiyana siyana. Chirungu chinjiniya chinonyanya kuzivikanwa nekugadzira iyo steam locomotive. Mhinduro dzaakawana dzakabudirira zvekuti mumigwagwa yenyika zhinji dzepasi nzira ya "Stephenson" ichiri chiyero.

Stephenson George: biography, basa, hupenyu hwehupenyu
Stephenson George: biography, basa, hupenyu hwehupenyu

Stephenson: basa rekutanga

George Stephenson akaberekwa muna 1781 muWilam, England, Northumberland. Baba vake vaive mugodhi ari nyore. Kubva achiri mudiki, ramangwana rakakurumbira mugadziri aishandira kuhaya. Hupenyu hwehudiki hwaStephenson hwakapedzwa padhuze nemugwagwa wematanda, waishandiswa kutakura marasha kubva kumugodhi. Iyi njanji, mamaira akati wandei, yakave prototype yeramangwana njanji.

Pazera ramakore 18, Stephenson akadzidza kurava nokunyora. Akaramba achizvidzidzisa, izvo zvakamutendera kuti ave chimakanika chemhepo.

Pakutanga kwezana ramakore rechi19, akawana basa semhizha mumugodhi wemarasha. Mudzimai wake Fanny akabereka mwanakomana muna 1803, uyo ainzi Robert. Makumi gumi anotevera Stephenson akazvipira mukudzidza kweinjini dzemhepo, mushure meizvozvo akasarudza kutanga kuzvigadzira. Mumakore makumi matatu ekutanga, George akazova mukuru wevanamakanika kumigodhi yemarasha. Muna 1815 akagadzira rambi rekutanga remugodhi.

Mugodhi wemarasha
Mugodhi wemarasha

Locomotive michina dhizaini

Muvambi akazviisira iro basa rekuita kuti zvive nyore kutakura marasha kubva kumugodhi kuenda pamusoro. Kutanga, Stephenson akagadzira injini yemhepo yakadhonza matrolley netambo yakasimba. Stephenson akaburuka kuzoshanda nekushinga kukuru. Akange akatarisana nebasa rakaoma: zvaidikanwa kugadzira injini yemhepo inogona kudhonza huremu hwakakura uye ichifamba nekukurumidza zvakanyanya kupfuura bhizawo zvaro.

Muvambi apedza chirongwa chakabudirira chechitima chekudhonza marori ane marasha munzira. Vatengi vakafunga zviitiko zvaro kuva zvinobudirira kwazvo.

Kugadzira kwaStephenson kwakashandisa simba rekupesana pakati pemavhiri uye neyakajeka simbi njanji kugadzira traction. Locomotive yaStephenson yaikwanisa kudhonza chitima chairema kusvika matani makumi matatu. Iyi mota yakatumidzwa zita raPrussia General Blucher, uyo akazviratidza kuHondo yeWaterloo.

Kubva panguva iyoyo zvichienda mberi, kuvakwa kwetekinoroji tekinoroji kwakave kuna George Stephenson basa rehupenyu hwake. Kwemakore mashanu anotevera, akagadzira uye akavaka gumi nemaviri nehafu locomotives. Zviitiko zvake zvakagamuchirwa pasi rese. Muna 1820 Stephenson akakokwa kuti agadzire njanji yemamaira masere yaizoshandira mugodhi wemarasha weHatton. Mune chirongwa ichi, chaifanirwa kusiya chakabatanidzwa, kusanganisa kushandiswa kwesimba remhasuru remhuka. Njanji iyi ndiyo yaive yekutanga kushandisa chete mainjini ekudhonza echitima chemota.

Muna 1822 Stephenson akatanga kugadzira njanji yaizobatanidza Stockton neDarlington. Kwapera gore, muvambi akatanga fekitori yepasi rese yezvivakwa. MunaSeptember 1825, hositi nyowani nyowani, inotyairwa nemuvambi iye pachake, yakadhonza chitima chinorema matani makumi masere. Chitima chemhepo chine ngoro dzakazadzwa nemarasha neupfu chakafukidza chinhambwe chemakiromita gumi nemashanu mumaawa maviri. Mune dzimwe nzvimbo, chitima chakamhanyisa kusvika ku39 km / h. Ngoro yevatyairi yekuyedza yakasungirirwawo kuchitima, uko nhengo dzekomisheni yekubvuma chirongwa ichi vaifamba.

Pamusoro pekubudirira

Ndichiri kuvaka njanji kuenda kuDarlington, George Stephenson akagutsikana kuti kunyangwe kukwira kudiki kunodzora kumhanya kwechitima, uye pamateru mabhureki akajairwa haashande. Muvambi akagumisa kuti kusaenzana kwakakosha kwesununguko kunofanira kudzivirirwa pakugadzira njanji.

Nepurojekiti nyowani nyowani, ruzivo rwekuvaka maturu e locomotives rwakafumiswa nezvitsva zvitsva uye nehunyanzvi mhinduro. Stephenson akakwanisa kugadzirisa matambudziko akaomesesa ekuvakwa kwemanzwiro, viaducts uye mabhiriji. Akashandisa njanji dzesimbi pamwe chete nezvitsigiso zvematombo. Izvi zvakaita kuti zvikwanise kuwedzera kumhanya kwetiromoti.

Pakuvaka njanji
Pakuvaka njanji

Imwe yemapurojekiti, yakataurwa naStephenson, yakakonzera kupokana kwakakomba kubva kuvaridzi vedzimba avo akabata mari yavo zvakananga. Nekuda kweizvozvo, sarudzo iyi yakarambwa panguva yekunzwa kweparamende. Vamiririri vakasarudza kuzvigamuchira kuti zviitwe chete mushure mekudzokororwa kukuru. Ini ndaifanira kuchinja zvakanyanya nzira yaifamba nechitima.

Mukuyedza kuenzanisa kwenzvimbo dzakasiyana, kukunda kwakaramba kuripo nemotokari yaStephenson. Akapa kumakwikwi aya mota yake yekupisa ine zita rine ruzha "Rocket". Stephenson steam locomotive ndiyo yega yakabudirira kupedza bvunzo dzakaoma. Iye anokunda mumakwikwi aya "Rocket" akadonha munhoroondo yehunyanzvi.

Stephenson's steam locomotive "Raketa"
Stephenson's steam locomotive "Raketa"

Zvishoma nezvishoma, pfungwa yekutaurirana kwechitima yakagamuchirwa munzanga, uye Stephenson akazove mumwe wevanogona uye vane hunyanzvi vanogadzira tekinoroji yemagetsi.

Pakupera kwebasa

Muna 1836, George Stephenson akagadzira hofisi kuguta guru reBritain, iyo yaizove nzvimbo yesainzi nehunyanzvi yekuvaka njanji. Nemasikirwo, muvambi wacho aichengetedza, saka akaedza kupa mapurojekiti akaedzwa-chete uye anoratidzwa. Kazhinji, zvisinei, sarudzo dzaakatsigira dzakaratidza kuve dzinodhura uye dzakaomarara kupfuura dzemakwikwi. Neichi chikonzero, Stephenson akundikana kakawanda mukurwa nevamwe vavaki.

Uye zvakadaro, zvinoenderana nemapurojekiti aStephenson akagadzirwa zvakakwana, vakaramba vachivaka zvivakwa munyika zhinji pasi rose. Iye ane tarenda mugadziri uye murongi wekugadzira akakwanisa kuona mazano ake uye mhedzisiro yehunhu hwakasanganiswa nesimbi munguva yehupenyu hwake.

Stephenson akashaya muna Nyamavhuvhu 1848 kuChesterfield.

Mufananidzo
Mufananidzo

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