Shota Rustaveli: Biography, Zvisikwa, Basa, Hupenyu Hwehupenyu

Shota Rustaveli: Biography, Zvisikwa, Basa, Hupenyu Hwehupenyu
Shota Rustaveli: Biography, Zvisikwa, Basa, Hupenyu Hwehupenyu

Video: Shota Rustaveli: Biography, Zvisikwa, Basa, Hupenyu Hwehupenyu

Video: Shota Rustaveli and the rebellious Kipchak 2022, Gunyana
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Shota Rustaveli, mukuru wezvematongerwo enyika wechiGeorgia uye mudetembi wezana ramakore regumi nemaviri, anozivikanwa zvikuru semusiki wedetembo rine mukurumbira "The Knight in the Panther's Skin". Iyi yehunyanzvi inoonekwa sechinhu chakakosha, kwete muchiGeorgia chete, asi zvakare mune rese bhuku renyika.

Shota Rustaveli: biography, zvisikwa, basa, hupenyu hwehupenyu
Shota Rustaveli: biography, zvisikwa, basa, hupenyu hwehupenyu

Mashoko pamusoro pehupenyu hwaRustaveli uye nhetembo yake huru

Pane ruzivo rwushoma kwazvo nezve iyo chaiyo biography yemudetembi. Akazvarwa, sezvingabvira, muna 1172 (zuva chairo harizivikanwe) mumusha weRustavi. Uye zviri pachena kuti akawana zita remadunhurirwa rekuti "Rustaveli" zvinoenderana nenzvimbo yaakaberekerwa. Sekureva kwemimwe mishumo, mudetembi wepakati nepakati aive wemhuri ine mukurumbira. Mune nhetembo yake, munyori anoti iye ndiye Meskh (sevamiririri vevamwe vemapoka emadzinza emaGeorgia).

Shota akagamuchira dzidzo yake kuGirisi, uyezve aive mubati wehomwe weakakurumbira Mambokadzi Tamara (izvi zvinoratidzwa siginecha yaRustaveli pane gwaro rakanyorwa muna 1190). Mudetembi akararama panguva iyo Georgia yaive ine simba uye ine simba nyika. Uye zvakare, padare remambokadzi wechidiki, kutarisisa kukuru kwakapihwa kutsigiro rwevanyanduri. Tamara pachake aidzivirira nhetembo.

Zviri pachena kuti Rustaveli aive munhu akadzidza kwazvo - izvi zvinogona kunzwisiswa kubva pane chinyorwa "The Knight muPather's Skin". Munyori wacho ainyatsoziva zvinyorwa zvePezhiya neArabic, nefilosofi yaPlato, nezvakakosha zvezvinyorwa zvekare zvechiGiriki uye zvinyorwa.

Munyori iye pachake akataura mune yegumi nenhanhatu stanza kuti iyo nyaya ndeye kugadziriswa kwe "Persian nyaya." Asi vaongorori havasati vawana zano rakafanana mumabhuku ePersia yekare. Iye protagonist wenhetembo ndiye knight Tariel. Iye anoedza kutsvaga uye kusunungura mudiwa wake Nestan-Darezhan, uyo akasungwa munzvimbo isingakundike nhare … Asi nhetembo inokwezva kwete chete nechinonakidza chiitiko, asi zvakare nemutauro weaphoristic: mitsara yakawanda yeepic yakazopedzisira yava mazwi uye zvirevo.

Hukama pakati paRustaveli naTamara

Zvichida kwazvo kuti Mambokadzi Tamara aive prototype yaNestan-Darejan. Kune ngano dzinoverengeka nezvehukama pakati pemutongi mukuru weGeorgia uye mudetembi Rustaveli. Imwe yengano inoti, kunyangwe aida Tamara, Rustaveli akamanikidzwa kuroora mumwe mukadzi anonzi Nina. Imwe nguva mushure memuchato, Tamara akaraira mudetembi kuti ashandurire muchiGeorgia meseji kubva kune mumwe akakundwa shah. Shota akazadzikisa zvakarongeka iyi, asi panguva imwe chete akaramba kupa mubairo nekuda kwebasa rake, ndiko kuti, airatidza kusafunga. Uye vhiki mushure meizvozvo, mudetembi akaurayiwa ndokugurwa musoro nemumwe munhu.

Imwe ngano inoti Rustaveli, asingakwanise kutakura chokwadi chekuti mambokadzi haamudzorere, akafunga kusiya hupenyu hwenyika ndokupedza mazuva ake ekupedzisira muchitokisi chemuJonastari yemuchinjikwa weiyo Holy Cross.

Rustaveli muJerusarema uye nezuva rekufa

Mufananidzo wanyanduri wakawanikwa pane imwe yemakoramu ayo unoratidza kugara kwaRustaveli muMonastery yeMuchinjikwa Mutsvene. Uye siginecha iri padyo nemufananidzo uyu inoratidza kuti Rustaveli akabatanidzwawo mukupenda kwechivakwa chechitendero ichi.

Zvinogoneka kuti Rustaveli akasvika kuJerusarema mushure mekufa kwaTamara (akafa pasati papfuura 1213). Uye chikonzero chekuenda kwake muchiitiko ichi hachikwanise kuve rudo kuna mambokadzi, asi, semuenzaniso, kuvengana nevaKaturike (ndiko kuti, nemufundisi wepamusoro weGeorgian Orthodox Church) John.

Hupenyu hwaRustaveli hwakaguma muna 1216. Makore mazana masere apfuura, asi Rustaveli nebasa rake vachiri kuyeukwa: nhandare yendege nepakati nzira muTbilisi dzakatumidzwa zita rake. Uye mune mamwe maguta eRussia (semuenzaniso, muMoscow, Vladikavkaz, St. Petersburg, Omsk, Ufa, Chelyabinsk) kune migwagwa yeRustaveli.

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